Reticular Weaving with Triangular Base. The weft goes around two warps at a time, in alternating alignment, to form a triangular mesh. Loom technique that is unique to the Andean pre-Hispanic peoples

Plain Gauze Weave. Loom structural technique in which warps threads are intercrossed or twisted in alternate way; the warp crossings are conserved by each passage of the wefts

Warp-Faced Weave. Derived from the Plain Weave, which is obtained by increasing the density of the wefts threads (horizontal), leaving the warps threads (vertical) hidden below them

Tapestry. Structural technique derived from Weft-Faced Weave, achieved by the use of discontinuous weft threads or that only partially cross the width of the loom

Slit or Openwork Tapestry. Is obtained when discontinuous weft threads are not interwoven with themselves and leave several warps unwoven, which when cut, generated slits in the cloth

Application: Woven disc, front and back (Illustration, Brugnoli et al.1997: Fig.8).

Application: A Simple tassel (Illustration, Brugnoli et al.1997: Fig.9)

Application: A Complex tassel (Illustration, Brugnoli et al.1997: Fig.11)

Volumetric Weaving: Representation of cotton capsules (Illustration, Brugnoli et al. 1997: Fig.16)

Volumetric weaving: Representation of corn flowers (Illustration, Brugnoli et al. 1997: Fig.15)

Volumetric weaving: Representation of the leaves and flowers of an unidentified tuber (Illustration, Brugnoli et al. 1997: Fig.17)

Volumetric weaving: Representation of coca flowers (Illustration, Brugnoli et al. 1997: Fig.12

Volumetric weaving: Representation of corn cob (Illustration, Brugnoli et al. 1997: Fig.23)

Wrapping. Action of wrapping yarn together and other elements to fatten them and generate volumes

Cross-knit Looping. Looping or needle embroidery used to make net-like structures on the basis of a single horizontal element, whose continuous links form rows that generate a textile surface

Braiding. Technique bases on the intertwining of a system of three or more warp theads. Is “plain” when it generates not volumetric structures

Trimming: Needlepoint Festton. Embroidery technique, often used as a finishing or to strengthen the borders of textiles

Trimming: Fringe of weft threads, prepared in layers (Illustration, Brugnoli et al., 1997: Fig.25)

Textiles structures of the ceremonial costume

The ground
The ground weaving is a composed of a counterpoint of open and closed plain structures. The former were made using the techniques of reticular weave with a triangular base, plain gauze weave, and plain weave. The closed structures were made using weft-face weave, slit or openwork tapestry, and an eccentric weft weave, to give the textile the needed strength in the areas where the piece contains open and transparent zones. Both types of structures rigorously maintain the orthogonal shape of the cloth by means of a reticule of lines and columns.

The applied designs
These were made separately and independently of the ground weaving. According to their shapes and techniques, one can distinguish:

Woven discs, were made with cotton warps, woven using the weft-face technique with camelid fiber. To form a disc out of a piece of plain weave, the ends of each warp were tied together and then tightened progressively to form a circle.

Tassels, were made with a handful of doubled threads made of camelid fiber. The ends were trimmed evenly and the tassel sewn onto the textile’s ground. According to the way it was made and its location on the textile, one can distinguish: simple tassels of yellow color, that are the bases for volumetric weavings; triple tassels, which are located at the perimeters of the rectangular modules, as well as bordering the stepped crosses of the central design; and complex tassels, that are composed of groups of simple tassels at the base, from which threads hang that end in tassels with two layers of fringe, or in large tassels that emerge out of its center. The last style is only found in the central sector of the breechcloth’s short skirt and has a more intense tone of red that that of the tassels on the other garments of the costume.

Volumetric weavings, are repeated, with minor variations, in organized patterns on the textile. They were attached to the plain discs, as well as at the thorax of the personages in profile. There are 12 types of volumetric designs that represent plant motifs, made with different techniques, such as wrapping, cross-knit looping, winding , plain braiding, festoon, and seaming, among others. Flowers or cotton capsules have been identified, as well as leaves and flowers of tubers, flowers and cobs of corn (Zea mays) and possibly coca leaves (Eritroxilum coca).

The finishing
The most important finishing was the fringe, which was attached to the edges of the garments. Fringes were woven independently with cotton warps and camelid fiber wefts. They were then sewn onto the garment. They were of just one color: yellow, ochre or red. We can find simple fringes or fringes with layers of wefts sewn together, which are characteristic of Chimú textiles.